Sunday, May 24, 2020

Developing Effective Decision Models - 1692 Words

Week 6 Page 1 Decision Models – Problem Analysis LDSP: 6720 – Developing Effective Decision Models July12, 2010 Week 2 Page 2 There are a number of different problem solving methods, techniques and styles, and the purpose of this paper is to review the analysis portion as it relates to the case study assigned to this week. Further, this paper will provide a critique to the solution of the case study problem which will include three distinct errors made in the problem solving phase. The errors were overcome, but not without much anxiety, lost time and heightened emotions. The three errors, which all occurred at separate phases of the analysis, at times also were transpiring†¦show more content†¦The research revealed that senior managers fail to see fact- and data-driven analysis as critical when making key business decisions and instead rely heavily on â€Å"gut feel† and â€Å"soft† factors such as consultation, intuition and experience. In essence, decision-makers revert to best guesses rather than making empirical decisions (Accenture, 2010). It would seem then, that the system of solving problems and making decisions has not fully evolved from an emotional or intuitive process into a scientific or analytical process. Decision Dynamics provides an assessment that suggests certain trends in problem solving and decision making (Decision Dynamics, 2010). We are, apparently, emotional first and rational second. Therefore, the emotions associated with the disgruntled workers and the perceived threat of a labor dispute or contract negotiation issue (once again – not knowledge but assumption) causes the team to fall into a ‘lack of precision trap’ outlined by Matheson Matheson in their book entitled The Smart Organization-Creating Value Through Strategic RD (1998). The authors suggest the lack of precision is what causes some organizations to mis-identify the problem, cause inaccurate analysis and eventually lead to inappropriateShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Effective Decision Models Essay examples2325 Words   |  10 PagesWeek 2 Page 1 Decision Models – Problem Categorization LDSP: 6720 – Developing Effective Decision Models June 14, 2010 Week 2 Page 2 There are a number of different problem solving methods, techniques and styles, and the purpose of this paper is to explore some of those differences. One can apply a systematic approach to problem solving, an emotional approach or an intuitive or ‘gut feel’ approach. Further, there are procedures and formulasRead MoreDecision Making : An Essential Skill Of A Productive And Successful Manager1089 Words   |  5 PagesDecision-making is an essential skill of a productive and successful manager as it has direct impact on the organization and team. Decision-making is the process of ‘selecting an alternative from among choices that are accessible.’ There are three main models of decision-making, these include rational, intuition and bounded rationality model. These provide an effective option of dealing with decision-making, and also helps to build support for the final decision and active commitment to that decisionsRead MoreInformation Decision Making1339 Wor ds   |  6 PagesCMI LEVEL 5 DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP (5D1) Assignment 5 Unit 5006 C5009 Project development and control Unit 5002 Information based decision making Andor Kovacs CMI no: 4205133 Assignment 5_Submission1 AEA group Assignment Requirements 5002.....................................................................................4 Learning Outcome 1: Be able to identify and select sources of data and information .....................................................................Read MoreDecision Making Model882 Words   |  4 PagesRUNNING HEAD: DECISION MAKING MODEL Decision Making Model MGT 350 University of Phoenix Abstract Decision making models can be very effective in problem solving. Scheduling is a big problem at Direct HomeHealth Care and a solution needed to be found. Scheduling software which can be very expensive was the only conclusion that could be reached. With much thought and analysis a resolution was reached with critical thought and a decision making model from the Small Business DevelopmentRead More Decision Making Model Essay854 Words   |  4 PagesDecision Making Model Abstract   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Decision making models can be very effective in problem solving. Scheduling is a big problem at Direct HomeHealth Care and a solution needed to be found. Scheduling software which can be very expensive was the only conclusion that could be reached. With much thought and analysis a resolution was reached with critical thought and a decision making model from the Small Business Development Center. Decision making models can be very helpful in analyzingRead MoreReporting Studying senior social science subjects was the most influential factor which provided a1600 Words   |  7 Pagesaptitude and expectations of stability and contentment of studying and working in psychology that had led me to such a determined decision. Relating Previously when I was exploring my abilities and career opportunities, I have made an important decision for my career which was to exclude music from my possible career options. There were two main reasons for the decision: (1) my musical talent, skills and abilities did not reach the expectations set by myself and others to pursue music as a professionRead MoreThe Leadership Journey Of Ronda Harlan1535 Words   |  7 Pagesprogram helped Ronda to evaluate human behavior within organizations to understand ethical practices, effective leadership, organizational communication, and cogent decision-making principles. Ronda Harlan reflects how the master’s program at CSU aligned with her learning experience and chronicles the evolution of leadership learned, practiced and forward. Ronda Harlan demonstrates skills for effective strategy development within an organization, organizational communication, the ability to create andRead MoreLiterature Review On Recidivism854 Words   |   4 PagesLiterature Review Correctional Treatment: An Effective Model for Change This particular study uses the therapeutic community theory model (TC) of treatment to reduce recidivism. The journal article discusses the development and the history of (TC). Furthermore, it uses the TC) model in the Oregon prison correctional system to validate this particular method of treatment. The purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to show that an effective drug treatment program in the criminal justiceRead MoreIncreasing Citizenship Behavior in the Organization675 Words   |  3 Pagesimplement a positive citizenship behavior model, leadership must fully understand what themselves and the employees expect and need. Citizenship Behavior Leadership is a critical element in setting the tone of citizenship behavior. Ethical leadership enhances credibility and trust from employees and creates what Neubert, Wu, and Roberts (2013) referred to as an atmosphere that promotes ethical conduct of followers through communication, reinforcement, and decision making. This climate works throughRead MoreThe Science And Practice Gap Essay964 Words   |  4 Pages2012). When making program decisions, practitioners are concerned with time, costs, benefits, efficiency, and what specific actions will work in particular program settings (Huston, 2005). Research on OST programs offers a wealth of information on associated program benefits but relatively little to say about how to make use of these findings to engage youth or improve quality. Very little is known about the costs or cost-to-benefit ratio of following different program models or activities, or the time

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Othello, By William Shakespeare - 998 Words

In this life that we live, different individuals go about their business oblivious of their individual struggles that confront them. According to www.dictionary.com, a struggle is defined as, â€Å"a forceful/violent attempt or effort to get free from restraint or contrition†. Some of these struggles are more pronounced than others. From Othello, the tragedy by William Shakespeare, we can see how humans are faced with individual contentions, and their daily actions are in fact, efforts of trying to free themselves. In the discussion below, we not only consider Othello’s struggles of being different, gullible, timid, inferior, proud and selfish but also, Iago’s conniving personality, hatred, greed, manipulation, selfishness and slander. Talking about human contrition, Othello is without doubt, as presented, is a man with great successes. He is introduced as a general with an outstanding reputation and from a royal family, â€Å"From men of royal siege, and my demerits†, (1.11.21). Notwithstanding such a standing, he struggles with the fact that he is a black moor among the Venetian whites. This aspect of difference makes him to positively stand out, but also as an easy target. Roderigo in his discussion with Iago calls him, â€Å"thick-lips,† (1.168). Incidentally, either by virtue of his origin or his upbringing Othello comes as one who is easily gullible. When he saw Cassio leave the company of Desdemona, other than calling him back to confirm whether it was indeed him, he dismissesShow MoreRelatedOthello, By William Shakespeare957 Words   |  4 Pagesinnocent person kills himself while not knowing the truth. The best example of that would be the play Othello by the great William Shakespeare. As l ittle as a handkerchief could make a difference if it is a symbol for something. In the play Othello by Shakespeare, handkerchief is first introduced by Othello to his beautiful mistress, Desdemona, as a sign of their love. At the end of the play what gets Othello to take extreme measures by the location of the handkerchief. As the symbol of the handkerchiefRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1599 Words   |  7 Pages William Shakespeare’s 16th century play Othello is a duplicitous and fraudulent tale set alternatingly between Venice in act 1, and the island of Cyprus thereafter. The play follows the scandalous marriage between protagonist Othello, a Christian moore and the general of the army of Venice, and Desdemona, a respected and intelligent woman who also happens to be the daughter of the Venetian Senator Brabantio. Shakespeare undoubtedly positions the marriage to be viewed as heroic and noble, despiteRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1218 Words   |  5 PagesIn a historical time period where emphasis was shifting from religion to race and ethnicity, key indicators of differences that perpetuated into racial prejudice and racial ideologies are evident in Othello by William Shakespeare. Although racism was not fully formed at this moment in history, Othello can be interpreted as a representation and an exploration of this shift in ideology. In the past, before this change to ward racial differences, religion was the major segretory factor in signifyingRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare894 Words   |  4 Pagesthose that which occurred in Othello written by William Shakespeare. Throughout the play Othello, we see the struggles of a marriage that is not accepted by their society. Othello is a extremely cherished black general living in a primarily white community. The play begins with Othello secretly becoming married to a white woman named Desdemona. This reasons others who are white to become angry and excuse to dislike this black man further more than they already do. Othello is a downward spiral from loveRead MoreOthello by William Shakespeare790 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout Othello by William Shakespeare, Othello makes numerous poor decisions due to his jealousy. Hitting Desdemona, trusting Iago, and killing Desdemona are among a few of the poor decisions that he makes. The word jealous can be defined as feeling or showing suspicion of som eones unfaithfulness in a relationship. Othello feels suspicious of Desdemona’s and Cassio’s relationship because of the lies that Iago tells him. Many people try to tell Othello the truth but he only believes the wordsRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1923 Words   |  8 Pagesdissatisfaction or complication is shown. Firstly in Othello love is presented as ephemeral and transient while atonement love is presented as unrequited and finally in cat on a hot tin roof love is presented as painful and troublesome due to unreciprocated feelings. The tragic plot of Othello hinges on the potential of the villain, Iago, to deceive other characters, above all Roderigo and Othello, through encouraging them to misinterpret what they see. Othello is prone to Iago s ploys seeing that he himselfRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare941 Words   |  4 Pageswas Williams Shakespeare’s play Othello which depicts the tragedy of Othello, a Morris Captain. What is different about Shakespeare play is that the tragic hero is the black Othello and the villain a white Iago. Therefore, Shakespeare depiction of Othello as a tragic character and Iago as a villain, challenges Elizabethan’s stereotypes regarding individuals of African descent. Shakespeare challenges the stereotypical â€Å"type –casting of the black man† in Elizabethan society by depicting Othello asRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1152 Words   |  5 Pages‘Othello’ was a tragedy of incomprehension at the deepest level of human dealings as no one in the play came to an understanding of himself or any of the surrounding characters. The play ‘Othello’ by William Shakespeare focused on tragedy through the anguish of the main character ‘Othello’ which lead to the suffering and death of numerous characters including himself. Appearance Vs. Reality challenged human dealings within the play ‘Othello’ as no-one came to see anyone’s true self and no-one seesRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1178 Words   |  5 Pagesprofitable in condition of good and immorality. Othello is presented as good and Iago as evil, but Iago and Othello’s relationship also shares a distrust of their wives. The overall logical argument is based on love, jealousy and betrayal between two lovers that ultimately leads to their separation because of Iago’s evil plan. I am using this article to agree with Berry s view on how Iago separates two lovers just so he can take retaliation on Othello by manipulating everyone to unmasking their trueRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1140 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Othello† is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. In this play, Shakespeare features three major characters: Othello, Iago, and Desdemona. Othello, a black man, and Desdemona, a white venetian secretly eloped in the play. Iago shows racism and prejudice towards their relationship because of their skin colors. In the play, Iago says: â€Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise! Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, or else the devil will make a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Microelectromechanical Systems And Emerging Technology Engineering Essay Free Essays

string(40) " to traditional optoelectronic devices\." The engineering that takes into history micro fabrication of micro graduated table transducers, actuators, investigations, capacitances, inductances, valves, cogwheels, pumps, gyroscope, mirrors, switches, and so on, similar to semiconductor french friess is referred to as Microelectromechanical Systems, or MEMS. MEMS is an emerging engineering which uses the tools and engineerings that were developed for the incorporate circuit. In kernel, MEMS are little and incorporate devices, which combine electronics, electrical every bit good as mechanical elements to run into the control related functional demands such as detection and propulsion. We will write a custom essay sample on Microelectromechanical Systems And Emerging Technology Engineering Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now MEMS design engineering is an drawn-out signifier of traditional microelectronic IC fiction techniques. Unlike microelectronic IC engineering, MEMS engineering can manufacture capacitances and inductances every bit good as mechanical elements such as springs, cogwheels, beams, stop, and so on. It was impossible to manufacture these constituents using IC engineering. IC engineering can merely manufacture music directors, dielectrics, and junctions ( rectifying tubes and transistors ) . MEMS, hence, is an advanced engineering every bit far as micro fabrication of Microsystems are concerned. MEMS are softly altering the manner you live, in ways that you might ne’er conceive of. The device that senses your auto has been in an accident, and fires the airbag is a MEMS device. Most new autos have over a twelve MEMS devices, doing your auto safer, more energy efficient, and more environmentally friendly. MEMS are happening their manner into a assortment of medical devices, and mundane consumer merchandises. Examples of MEMS device applications include inkjet-printer cartridges, accelerometers, illumination automatons, micro engines, locks, inertial detectors, micro transmittals, micro mirrors, micro actuators, optical scanners, fluid pumps, transducers, and chemical, force per unit area and flow detectors. New applications are emerging as the bing engineering is applied to the miniaturisation and integrating of conventional devices. Fig. 1.a MEMS device via medias electronics, electrical and mechanical elements Conductors Resistors Capacitors Inductors Semi- music directors Insulators Diodes Transistors ELECTRICAL Components ELECTRONIC Components Mechanical COMPONENTS Anchor Radio beam Bearing Cantilever Diaphragm Flexure Gear Home plates Post Probe MICROLEVEL DIMENSION Categorization of MEMS Mechanical MEMS: They largely emphasize two categories of devices ; mechanical construction based device and piezoelectric stuff based device. When the geometric structural constellations are exploited for feeling and triping purpose so the MEMS design can be classified under the first class. Assorted geometric structural constellations are cantilever, beam, home base, stop and hollow chamber. Piezoelectric stuff based mechanical detectors and actuators exploit the consequence of piezoelectric effect. As piezoelectric effect concerns with mechanical belongingss such as emphasis and strain, piezoelectric effect stuff based MEMS devices have been classified under mechanical MEMS. Broadly, the mechanical MEMS use the undermentioned methods and rules. Cantilever beam as feeling component Use of plates/diaphragms construction for capacitive detection Microphones as sound detectors Exploitation of coriolis acceleration in gyroscope for angular rate Measurements Principle of piezoelectric effect and piezomechanics Cantilevers bend when force per unit area is applied and oscillate in a manner similar to spring. Cantilever detectors can be used for the sensing of physical, chemical and biological analytes with comparatively good sensitiveness and selectivity. The application countries are huge including acoustic measurings, quiver monitoring, viscousness and denseness measuring, infrared and UV sensing, magnetic and electric field sensing, sensing of chemical bluess, including medical and biological agents, measuring of contaminations in H2O, explosive bluess, atomic radiation and sensing of DNA. A mike is an electro-mechanical-acoustic transducer that transforms acoustical energy into electrical energy. These are air-coupled supersonic microsensors, which take the advantages of miniaturisation and low power ingestion offering a broad scope of applications such as sound sensing and analysis, wind noise flow turbulency detection and quiver detection. The rule of such detectors is based on the mechanical quiver of micro-membranes or stop. The stop is a thin, round membrane that makes up a capacitance with the land plane. The value of the electrical capacity alterations during the quiver cased by the sound signal. The distortion or divergence of the membranes from the normal value depends on the amplitude of the incident force per unit area ( sound force per unit area ) . Measurement of the angular rate of rotary motion is utile in many applications. A really common application is the measuring of the orientation or lean a vehicle running at high velocity in a curving way. MEMS gyroscopes are designed to mensurate angular rate of rotary motion. The gyroscope exploits the Coriolos acceleration through a microplate with rotation-induced sidelong warp being sensed capacitively. Piezoelectric stuffs such as lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ) are assuring stuffs for MEMS applications due to their alone and singular belongingss. The PZT convert mechanical perturbations to electrical signals. Piezoelectric polymers are besides now being used abundantly as they offer the advantage of strain without weariness. Many MEMS accelerometers employ piezoelectric detection technique, using cantilever beams. Reverse of piezoelectric effect is called piezomechanics which can be exploited for the design of piezoactuators. MEMS mechanical detectors are really popular because of easy integrating process in the micromachining procedure. The basic challenge encountered in planing, nevertheless, is the execution of signal processing circuitry. Thermal MEMS: Thermal MEMS work on thermic phenomenon. Thermal phenomena are fundamentally described in footings of thermoelectric consequence, Peltier consequence, thermo sensitiveness, piezoelectric effect and form memory consequence. The topical topics under thermic MEMS include: Thermodevices including rule of thermocouple and thermopiles. Peltier heat pump and heat sink devices. Hotwire and microhotplate based thermic flow detector. Application of micro-thermo-vessels. U-shaped horizontal and perpendicular uni-and bidirectional thermal actuators. Chevron actuator. Thermocouple investigation for imagining, topography and informations storage applications. MOEMS: Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems is know as MOEMS. MOEMS are MEMS, but they handle optical signals alternatively of traditional electrical signals. MOEMS engineering accommodates the rules of optics, electronics and mechanics. MOEMS engineering requires a different set of regulations for operation as opposed to normal MEMS universe. MOEMS show good public presentation with negligible signal debasement and better quality of service ( QOS ) compared to traditional optoelectronic devices. You read "Microelectromechanical Systems And Emerging Technology Engineering Essay" in category "Essay examples" High operational bandwidth and low power ingestion are the cardinal characteristics of MOEMS devices. MOEMS have emerged to supply alone functionality in telecommunication applications. Manufacturers of these devices are calculating new chances in information engineering, wellness attention, military, industrial, and trial and measuring sectors. Some of the most of import application of MOEMS are listed as follows. Free-space optical switches, routers and beam splitters. Concentrating constituents Tunable filters Display and projection systems Guided ocular devices and tuners Magnetic MEMS: Magnetic stuffs play of import function in planing MEMS detectors, actuators and storage devices. The magnetic stuffs could be soft or difficult. The usage of magnetic stuffs in MEMS is a recent development. Soft ferromagnetic stuffs have found the most public-service corporation in microsensors, microactuators and Microsystems. Hard magnetic stuffs have several applications including storage devices. Magnetoresistive ( MR ) stuffs are used for feeling applications. They are used for observing the strength and way of the magnetic field, which in bend can mensurate the distance, propinquity, place, angle and rotational velocity. The MR stuffs undergo a alteration in opposition in response to an applied magnetic field vector. RF MEMS: Wireless communications have existed for a long clip. New wireless communicating systems are being developed more quickly than of all time. Wireless engineering utilizes RF ( Radio Frequency ) signal, which is an electromagnetic ( EM ) signal. Radio frequence operates in the scope 9 Khz to 300Ghz. RF MEMS is an emerging engineering that plays a major function in speed uping the current growing in wireless communicating. The impact will be felt at all degrees in the wireless substructure from high-end transmittal Stationss to low-end consumer merchandises, particularly nomadic phones. RF MEMS add new capablenesss and improved power efficiency, while maintaining wireless devices little and low-cost. RF MEMS can be used for accomplishing: Transmission and response Time hold for phased- arrays VCO tuning Variable Delay Lines ( VDL ) RF set select filters Reconfigurable aerials design Intermediate frequence ( IF ) filtering Microfluidic Systems: The survey of transit of fluids and their mixtures at a microscale degree is known as microfluidics. Microdevices, which are used to transport and hive away fluid, are called microfluidic systems ( MFS ) . Typically the MFS grip fluid volumes in the order of nanoliter. Some of the of import edifice blocks of microfluidic systems are: Microchannel Microvalves Micronozzles Micropumps Microreservoirs There are a great figure of applications of microfluidic systems. Some of the of import applications are inkjet printing, drug dispensing, reaction analysis, blending and separation, chemical synthesis, sensing of chemical species, familial analysis and semiconducting material processing. The advantages of MEMS compared to conventional fluidic systems are that the miniaturized system requires less reagent ( species or samples ) ensuing in faster, accurate and dependable measurings. Overall, the chief advantage of MFS is better public presentation. MFC requires building and design that significantly differs from macroscale hardware as the behaviour of fluid at microlevel is different. For illustration, the capillary action alterations significantly when the fluid base on balls through microscale diameter channels. As the graduated table becomes little the dimensions of a device achieves a certain size and the fluid particles or the solvent become comparable in size with the channel or the device itself. MFC are loosely used in semiconducting material processing engineering. The demand of MFS in the semiconducting material industry is for gas distribution and control. MEMS-based engineering can make force per unit area regulators, shut-off valves, and mass flow accountants ( MFC ) for electronics forte gases ( ESG ) distribution. The usage of MFS and faculties eliminates the size and figure of dyer’s rockets and face seals used in incorporate gas control and distribution constituents. Regardless of the application spheres of MFS, the engineering design issues to be addressed are as follows: Precision alliance, truth, geometrical regularity and smoothness Mechanical parametric quantities such as opposition to chair and high force per unit areas. Architecture for complex construction and packaging denseness Standardization issues BIO and CHEMO-Devices: Microdevices used for the analysis and sensing of biomedical and industrial reagents are called as bio and chemo-devices. Unlike MFS, bio and chemo-devices are diode-type, capacitor-type, transistor-type or 3D cantilever construction. Such devices for sample analysis for biomedical and industrial demands are still under development. Some of the applications are: Forensicss Familial showing Stress-response analysis Antibodies cistron look in transgenic cells Bio-warfare agents sensing Bacteria sensing Drug find, analysis and synthesis Modeling AND SIMULATION MEMS devices are designed on the footing of micromachining technique. Prior to their design, it is of import to analyze the behaviour of the systems. See a parallel home base capacitance type electrostatic MEMS actuator. If a electromotive force were applied across the two electrodes of the microactuator so the movable home base would be displaced ensuing propulsion. When an external forcing map is applied to the system a alteration may non happen at all. The alteration occurs merely when the input overcomes the loss constituent that is matter-of-fact in a existent system, the manner the system responds to the input depends on both input coercing map and on the other factors such as its geometry and the stuff utilizing which the system has been built. The jurisprudence of preservation of energy ever governs the relationship between the input and the end product of a system. In this instance the external forcing map could be a force, force per unit area or magnetic field. The of import thing is that each and every system can be seen through some signifier of regulating equations, which are formulated, based on the input and end pro duct relationships. The government equations are called as theoretical account equations or in other words the theoretical account equations represent the system. If exemplary equations are given it can be used directly off, else the equations have to be formulated merely by looking at the system. This is called as designation. Capacitor-based actuator is considered a simple dynamitic system and its analytic dynamic theoretical account equations can instantly be written as, C = a A / cubic decimeter ( T ) F = Q2 ( T ) / 2 a Angstrom I ( T ) = 1/R { V ( T ) – Q ( T ) cubic decimeter ( T ) / a A } milliliter ( T ) = -bl ( T ) – K { cubic decimeter ( T ) – l0 } – Q2 ( T ) / 2 a Angstrom Q ( T ) = 1/R { V ( T ) – Q ( T ) cubic decimeter ( T ) / aA } Where, v ( T ) = commanding input electromotive force ; Q ( T ) = charge in the capacitance ; F = C force ; C = electrical capacity ; I ( T ) = current through resistance ; cubic decimeter ( T ) = air spread ; l0 = initial spread ( when V ( T ) is zero ) ; A = home base country ; a = permittivity ; R = opposition in the circuit ; m = mass of the top home base ; B = muffling changeless ; K = spring invariable ; Fig. 1.b Model diagram of an electrostatic capacitive microactuator L0 ( T ) L0 ( T ) m R B K – + I ( T ) V ( T ) MEMS Packaging and Design Considerations Like IC packaging, MEMS packages must hold the ability to run into some of import standards, such as There should be good isolation between the non-sensing and feeling countries of the device, There must non be any hinderance to the driving actions such as tilting, writhing, revolving, skiding, or vibrating, Efficient matching at the nexus, junction, anchor country, Unreliability issues due to the undermentioned grounds. Contamination Inactive overload Blending Lodging Clamping Delamination Creep Fatigue MICROMACHINING The term micromachining refers to the fiction of 3D MEMS constructions with the assistance of advanced lithography followed by etching. Lithography patterns the structural stuff whereas etching removes the selective part of the substrate or thin movie based structural and sacrificial stuff already deposited. In general, the micromachining procedure can either utilize the stuff to organize microstructures by etching straight into the stuff or utilize structural bed to bring forth the same. Sacrificial bed is etched off in order to obtain a separate 3D construction. Broadly, the fiction processes fall into two classs such as: Bulk micromachining Surface micromachining 5.1 Bulk micromachining: Bulk micromachining is a procedure used to bring forth micromachinery or microelectrical mechanical systems ( MEMS ) . It refers to etching through both the sides of a majority of stuff to organize the coveted constructions. The constructions are formed by wet chemical etching or by reactive ion etching ( RIE ) . The advantage of majority micromachining is that substrate stuffs such as vitreous silica or individual crystal Si are readily available and moderately high aspect-ratio constructions can be fabricated. Normally, silicon wafers are used as substrates for majority micromachining, as they can be anisotropically wet etched, organizing extremely regular constructions. Wet etching typically uses alkalic liquid dissolvers, such as K hydrated oxide ( KOH ) or tetramethylammonium hydrated oxide ( TMAH ) to fade out Si which has been left exposed by the photolithography dissembling measure. These alkali dissolvers dissolve the Si in a extremely anisotropic manner, with some crystallographic orientations fade outing up to 1000 times faster than others. Such an attack is frequently used with really specific crystallographic orientations in the natural Si to bring forth V-shaped channels. The surface of these channels can be atomically smooth if the etch is carried out right, and the dimensions and angles can be exactly defined. 5.2 Surface micromachining: Surface micromachining is another method that characterizes fiction of MEMS structures out of sedimentations thin movies, i.e, it involves the creative activity of mechanical constructions in thin movies already grown on the surface of the wafer. Layers from which the 3D constructions will be created may be composed of three beds as follows: Isolation bed: When Si substrate is used as the susbtrate, the first measure in surface micromachining is the deposition of an isolation bed. This bed is deposited with dielectric stuff such as Si dioxide ( SiO2 ) followed by a thin bed of Si nitrite. This acts as etch halt for many etchants. Sacrificial bed: Sacrificial bed is besides called spacer bed, which needs to be etched in order to make separate 3D construction. A phosphosilicate glass ( PSG ) bed os a preffered stuff for sacrificial bed. Structural stuff: this is the bed from which the construction will be built. The most common structural stuff in microfabrication is polysilicon ( poly-Si or merely poly ) . Polysilicon stuff based micromachining has been the anchor of the fiction engineering for many of the microsensors and actuators. Basic apprehension and control of the stuff belongingss of structural movies Let go ofing method for the microstructure Fabrication characteristics for hinged constructions and high-aspect ratio devices Boxing methods Fig 1.c, Surface micromachining Silicon has first-class mechanical belongingss doing it an ideal stuff for machining. The beds are deposited in sequence and later some selective parts of the sacrificial and structural beds are removed to construct up a 3D mechanical construction. Hydrofluoric acid can fade out the sacrificial bed. Rising and drying follow etching. Once done, the construction can be freed from the planar substrate. This is called release procedure. The surface micromachining procedure is a critical method, as it requires serious attending as the belongings of stuff significantly varies at the microstructure degree. In peculiar, following issues are dealt with careful attending. Market growing of MEMS Presently, MEMS market demands are going overpoweringly high. MEMS-based systems developers are concentrating on technological inventions, as they complete to offer merchandises that meet client demands every bit good as public presentation. The market increasingly is being strengthened by the fact that investing in MEMS is time-based value technology that meets the high industry demand. User and sellers are besides really sensitive to monetary value of the market while explicating market schemes, at least over short term. The value of MEMS merchandises increased 14 billion USD by the twelvemonth 2000, that was justly predicted during 1995. The market for RF MEMS devices is forecasted to turn to 1 billion USD by 2006. Towards the beginning of the fourth one-fourth in the twelvemonth 1998, NEXUS ( The Network of Excellence in Multifunctional Microsystems ) undertaking force announced the first ‘Market Analysis for Microsystems ‘ , for the period 1996-2002. Their survey inc luded all types of Microsystems, including MEMS. It is estimated a jutting market growing of 14 billion USD to 38 billion USD by the twelvemonth 2002. Figure 1.c shows the illustration of market growing every bit far as gross revenues of MEMS merchandises are concerned. Figure 1.d shows approximative per centum of assorted types of MEMS devices in assorted sectors. Fig. 1.d, Market growing of MEMS based merchandises Fig 1.e, An approximative illustration of MEMS merchandises in assorted sectors Applications MEMS devices have already found important applications in many sectors. They are used for commanding micromanipulator, micro-handling equipments, microgrippers and microrobots. Many MEMS devices are found in clock, ink-jet pressman caput, colour projection and show systems and scanning investigation equipments. MEMS engineering besides designs many types of detectors including force per unit area, temperature, chemical and quiver detectors. MEMS-based light reflectors, beam splitter, RF and optical switches are common. Broadly the application sectors are: Aircraft industries Automotive Chemical, clinical and pharmaceuticals industry Automation industry and fabrication sectors Defense and infinite applications Environmental Communicationss Health scientific discipline ( Pacemakers ) Calculating ( Data storage devices, show, publishing caput ) Consumer merchandises How to cite Microelectromechanical Systems And Emerging Technology Engineering Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

How Has Classical Music Changed the World free essay sample

The rest of the world changed but classical music has remained the same. Classical music hasnt kept up with the world, so the world has been leaving it behind. Classical music concentrates too much on repertoire from the past. Classical music remains classic and doesnt appeal to this generation, but there are some benefits. Listening to classical music can develop brain power, aid in learning create relaxation, and reduces stress. Although Classical Music hasnt significantly changed or impacted the world; there are some benefits to listening to classical music.No matter what type of music you listen to now on any radio stations, whether it is pop, hip-hop, rock rap, or r;b, chances of that music staying the same and being around for the next couple hundred years are very slim. Music of today is always evolving and changing; but at the same time, you will still be hearing the timeless classic sounds of an orchestra or a single instrument playing classical music. Classical music stays the same never evolving to change with the world. There are deep disconnects between classical music and the society we live in.Classical music lives in a noncreative space; whereas music of today is contemporary with a beat. Classical music has continued to retreat from our culture. Classical music really does sit in a world all on its own, far away from our current culture. Todays culture is more laid back and informal, whereas classical music is way too conservative, stuffy and uptight. With the emergence of country, rock, jazz and hip-hop music, contemporary music of today, outside the classical world, has a beat.Classical music doesnt have a beat because so much of it was written long ago, before the beat of rock, country, r;b, IP-hop and jazz had evolved. Classical music doesnt carry the sound of contemporary life compared to all the other genres of music in the world today. We now find in the arts serious modern dance, set to music with a beat. Broadway musicals might have a beat. Concerts held in auditoriums and arenas have music with a beat. Music in the movies has a beat. We see music with a beat referred to in novels and poetry, and in serious plays.Classical music doesnt reflect the current Of everyday life because the music played at classical performances comes from the past. Classical music ivies in a world of its own, not the contemporary world the classical audience lives, but not the world anyone outside classical music lives in, either. It seems like classical music can function as a museum, exhibiting works from the past. But museums of today now stress contemporary work, and much of it touches on everyday life, for example, contemporary art exhibits and photographs.Plays, poetry, novels, and pop culture music of today all show the life and culture of our time. So why not classical music? Why classical music moved away from our culture and other arts didnt. Is it because classical music creates a deeper, more personal, and more deeply emotional bond? Or because classical music so much of it having no words to fix any meaning can be considered ineffable, touching deep feelings that cant be explained? Or is it because classical music the most expensive of the performing arts became preserve for the rich, something held out as proof of their cultu ral superiority?Whatever the cause, classical music became, somehow, an almost sacred rite set apart from everyday life. Research has shown that listening to classical music makes you smarter. Listening to classical music stimulates the creative pathways in the human brain. Classical music has been found to reduce tension and enhance brain power and specific types of intelligence such as verbal ability and spatial- temporal reasoning. Because of this, Classical music has been found to be extremely beneficial for pregnant women.Studies have shown that babies listening to classical music in the womb could benefit the baby by raising their intelligence and mental development. Not only is classical music a calming method for both mother and child, the music can help to prepare an unborn infants ears and brain for the outside world. Mothers can play the classical music for their baby by placing earphones around her belly. This theory of letting babies listen to the classical music by classical music genius Mozart In the womb became known as the The Mozart Theory. During the sass, several research papers and popular books wrote about The Mozart Theory, which came to be called the Mozart Effect: an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart music. The Mozart effect has been the subject of much research in recent years, after it was found that listening to Mozart music may increase specific types of intelligence. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students brain development and intelligence.The Mozart Theory indicate that listening to Mozart music makes you smarter, or that early childhood exposure, as early as in the womb, has a beneficial effect on mental development and induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as spatial reasoning. This theory, the Mozart Effect, became so popular that in 1 998, Cell Miller, the governor of Georg ia proposed writing the Mozart effect into law. He asked for $1 05,000 per year to produce and distribute a classical music CD to every parent of a newborn child born in Georgia.But it turned out a vote was unnecessary because Sony produced the albums for free, and they were included in gift packets at all Georgia hospitals upon discharge. Research has also found that classical music can help promote concentration and focus when studying for an exam. Listening to classical music can help people filter UT distractions as well encouraging them to focus and study. Play classical music in the background as you study. This will increase the amount of information that your brain absorbs. Studies have shown that classical music has learning benefits when played while studying or sleeping.Studies showed the effects of different background music while you study; research demonstrates that when you listened to classical music while studying, you will improve academic performance by 22%. Classical music is usually the top choice by experts for raising IQ. Almost everyone has heard that if you are exposed to classical music in the womb youre more likely to be a genius. The Mozart effect has been the subject of much research in recent years, after it was found that listening to Mozart music may increase specific types of intelligence.Classical music creates channels of neurons in the brain that stimulate creativity. Studies show that implies trains the brain for higher forms of thinking. The soft gentle sounds of classical music can lull you into a highly relaxed state; calm your mind and body. Classical music can take your mind away from the daily grind of life we are forced to endure. In away, listening to lassie music is a form of meditation because it keeps our mind away from other things, stress and frustrations as we focus on the sounds. Many doctors recommend it for stress relief and to even be played in the operating room during surgeries. Hospital studies have shown that where classical music is played, patients need fewer drugs after surgeries. The music calms and relaxes them, allowing their bodies to heal at a faster rate. It can lower blood pressure and increases the oxygen consumption by the heart. Studies have shown the positive effects and benefits of classical music as it relates to lath and wellness.Everything from hospital studies to birthing technique studies have resulted in classical musics positive effect on not only our psyches, but on our overall health, as well. When the mind and body are calm, our blood flows better and distribute oxygen to our brain and body more evenly. Listening to classical music affects concentration and helps us to focus more clearly. Classical music can also reduce stress and blood pressure. It is compiled of high-frequency sounds and it is said by some studies that these sounds re- energize the cortex of the brain and it stimulates health.It has been proven that classical music has the ability to calm moods and generate positive thoughts. Its advised that you listen at times of the day when you are feeling agitated or slightly under the weather. Doing so will reverse any negative mood leaving you in a more relaxing and stress free state. In conclusion, the question was asked, how has classical music changed the world? Classical Music has not changed or impacted the world compared to other genres of music. Country, Jazz, Rock, RB, and hip-hop music have evolved with the changing of time and culture.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Muhammad Ibn Musa al

Muhammed Ibn Musa al Khwarizmi was a renowned mathematician, astronomer and geographer, who lived during the Abbasid Empire. He is known as the father of algebra.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some historians believe, he was born in Chorasmia in the year 780 AD (Moore Mertens, 2011), and died in 850 AD. Others think that he was born in Qutrubbul, near Baghdad (Morony, 2006). He flourished as a great scholar in the ‘House of Wisdom’ in Bagdad, under the rule of Kalif al-Mamun. Bagdad brightened the world at that time with its brilliance, and the intellectual dominance of the Arab civilization influenced the Western Europe to a great extent (Riesler, 1995). Al Khwarizmi’s algebra reflected Arab’s superior civilization, and his new ideas and thoughts propelled Arab wisdom. His contributions to astronomy, geography, and mat hematics were unparalleled, and they became the landmarks in human history. Al Khwarizmi’s arithmetic defined the Indian numeration, and acquainted Europe with the Arabic numbers. The Western Europe became aware of the Arab numbering system, decimal points and numbers from his books. Al Khwarizmi used the word â€Å"Kasra† to clarify the fractions. His arithmetic work, Algorimus, was a Latin version of his previous work, and the word algorithm was derived from it. Another book written by him on astronomy dealt with calendars, zodiac positions, sine tables and tangents and calculation of eclipses. The Zij al-Sindhind is also a great work by him on astronomy.Advertising Looking for report on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Al-Khwarizmi’s book titled Surat al-Ard is based on Ptolemy’s geographical findings. He prepared a new world map, which became the milestone in geography at that time. In addition, he reconstructed the sundials, the shadow square and the alidade for making angular observations. Thus, he spread new ideas and knowledge in the world, which exemplified the Arab civilization. It is through him that the entire Europe and other countries came to know about the Indian numerals, Arabic algebra and mathematics, without which the present day civilization and science would not have accomplished progress. Reference List Moore, C., Mertens, S. (2011). The Nature of Computation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Morony, M. G. (2006). Iraq After the Muslim Conquest, NJ, USA: Gorgias Press. Riesler, J. C. (1955). La Civilization Arabe (Arab Civilization). Paris, France: Payot. This report on Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was written and submitted by user Galilea L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Jfk

Jfk J.F.K. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest person to be ever be elected President, and was youngest to die in office. He was shot and killed on Nov. 22, 1963, after he had serve in office only two years and 10 months as chief executive. The whole world mourned Kennedy's death and Former presidents and royalty walk behind his casket at his funeral. His Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took his place then they succeeded him as President.The Kennedy Assassination A deadly assassin shot President John F. Kennedy to death when he rode through the streets of Dallas, Tex. The death continued the very unhappy coincidence that, since William H. Harrison, what is weird that every American President to be elected in a year ending in "0" had died or been killed while in office.The purpose When Kennedy Came to Texas He was Accompanied by his wife and Vice President and Mrs.English: President John F. Kennedy with Vice Presi...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Grammar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Grammar - Essay Example Thus, the language particular-level provides us with the information about the distinctive characteristics of different categories used in English. This gives an opportunity to state that a word refers to a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc. For example, a verb has six grammatical categories: person, number, tense, aspect, voice and mood. It is the only part of speech that may change according to tense. As for the general level, it gives an opportunity to analyze two or more languages and find their common features. This helps to simplify the process of learning by the usage of the same terms. There are nouns, adjectives, verbs in all the languages. They just sound in different ways. For example, when there are pronouns in English, the same part of speech is called Pronomen in German. B) Should pronouns be treated as a subclass of nouns, or as a separate word class? Why? Pronouns should be treated as a separate word class. The main reason is that both these parts of speech have diff erent functions. A noun is applied in order to name substances and living beings. The same cannot be stated about pronouns. They do not name things, they only pointy out them. Moreover, English grammar would become more difficult if nouns and pronouns were the same part of speech. Thus, there are no special plural cases when we learn pronouns and the latter cannot be countable or uncountable. So, there is no need to change something in the traditional way to learn two separate parts of speech – nouns and pronouns. C) What are kernel clauses and what are the advantages of recognising the kernel vs non-kernel distinction? A kernel clause is a simple sentence that does not have any optional expression. It is indicative. This clause is unmarked in voice, mood, and polarity. It cannot be passive. For example: He threw a ball. Non-kernel clause is either negative or missing some element. Moreover, if there is an adjective, infinitive or gerund, it is also a non-kernel clause. For e xample: They saw him crossing the street. There is one major advantage of recognizing kernel and non-kernel clauses – this gives a significant simplification of grammar. D) Why is it important to systematically distinguish between grammatical class and grammatical function? Grammatical class is a grouping of words that are distinguished by common characteristics. For example, such words as dog, coat, man, and umbrella are nouns, because they name objects, have gender and number. They may have different grammatical function performed in a sentence. The latter helps to see the role of one and the same word in different contexts. That is why we should distinguish grammatical class and grammatical function. E) How does Huddleston's treatment of prepositions differ from that found in traditional grammars? What are the advantages (and disadvantages?) of Huddleston’s treatment? It is necessary to stress that Huddleston has another point of view upon prepositions. From his per spective, there are two types of propositions – they can refer either to coordinator or subordinator classes. That is why propositions are not secondary in English sentence; their function is very important. This part of speech often stands together with a verb – the principal member of a sentence. Moreover, proposition may function as one element in an utterance.